Semantic Features Analysis Definition, Examples, Applications

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semantic analysis of text

The mathematical background of LSA for deriving the meaning of the words in a given text by exploring their co-occurrence is examined. The algorithm for obtaining the vector representation of words and their corresponding latent concepts in a reduced multidimensional space as well as similarity calculation are presented. Semantics is a branch of linguistics, which aims to investigate the meaning of language. Semantics deals with the meaning of sentences and words as fundamentals in the world. Semantic analysis within the framework of natural language processing evaluates and represents human language and analyzes texts written in the English language and other natural languages with the interpretation similar to those of human beings.

It allows computers to understand and interpret sentences, paragraphs, or whole documents, by analyzing their grammatical structure, and identifying relationships between individual words in a particular context. Thanks to tools like chatbots and dynamic FAQs, your customer service is supported in its day-to-day management of customer inquiries. The semantic analysis technology behind these solutions provides a better understanding of users and user needs. These solutions can provide instantaneous and relevant solutions, autonomously and 24/7.

The concept-based semantic exploitation is normally based on external knowledge sources (as discussed in the “External knowledge sources” section) [74, 124–128]. As an example, explicit semantic analysis [129] rely on Wikipedia to represent the documents by a concept vector. In a similar way, Spanakis et al. [125] improved hierarchical clustering quality by using a text representation based on concepts and other Wikipedia features, such as links and categories. Wimalasuriya and Dou [17], Bharathi and Venkatesan [18], and Reshadat and Feizi-Derakhshi [19] consider the use of external knowledge sources (e.g., ontology or thesaurus) in the text mining process, each one dealing with a specific task. Wimalasuriya and Dou [17] present a detailed literature review of ontology-based information extraction. The authors define the recent information extraction subfield, named ontology-based information extraction (OBIE), identifying key characteristics of the OBIE systems that differentiate them from general information extraction systems.

Understanding these terms is crucial to NLP programs that seek to draw insight from textual information, extract information and provide data. It is also essential for automated processing and question-answer systems like chatbots. Capturing the information is the easy part but understanding what is being said (and doing this at scale) is a whole different story.

The authors present a chronological analysis from 1999 to 2009 of directed probabilistic topic models, such as probabilistic latent semantic analysis, latent Dirichlet allocation, and their extensions. The first step of a systematic review or systematic mapping study is its planning. The researchers conducting the study must define its protocol, i.e., its research questions and the strategies for identification, selection of studies, and information extraction, as well as how the study results will be reported.

As discussed in previous articles, NLP cannot decipher ambiguous words, which are words that can have more than one meaning in different contexts. Semantic analysis is key to contextualization that helps disambiguate language data so text-based NLP applications can be more accurate. This is a key concern for NLP practitioners responsible for the ROI and accuracy of their NLP programs. You can proactively get ahead of NLP problems by improving machine language understanding. In real application of the text mining process, the participation of domain experts can be crucial to its success.

Top Applications of Semantic Analysis

In traditional psychology, activity of the mind is described verbally as dynamics of ideas, thoughts, motives, emotions, etc.36,53. In physical terms, control of the living system’s behavior is understood as electrochemical process occurring in an individual’s nervous system including \(\sim \)100 billion neuron cells interacting with each other via action potentials47. After initial formation by receptor cells, action potentials are transmitted through multilevel neuronal chains to the central nervous system and the brain where their transformation is observed by variety of physical means48,49,50.

  • Semantic analysis significantly improves language understanding, enabling machines to process, analyze, and generate text with greater accuracy and context sensitivity.
  • Semantic analysis methods will provide companies the ability to understand the meaning of the text and achieve comprehension and communication levels that are at par with humans.
  • This allows to build explicit and compact cognitive-semantic representations of user’s interest, documents, and queries, subject to simple familiarity measures generalizing usual vector-to-vector cosine distance.
  • This cognitive instrument allows an individual to distinguish apples from the background and use them at his or her discretion; this makes corresponding sensual information useful, i.e. meaningful for a subject81,82,83,84.
  • Chinese language is the second most cited language, and the HowNet, a Chinese-English knowledge database, is the third most applied external source in semantics-concerned text mining studies.

As shown above, quantum modeling approach has unique advantage in addressing this challenge. Volumes of textual data, piling beyond capacity of human cognition, motivate development of automated methods extracting relevant information from corpuses of unstructured texts. As ensuring relevance requires prognosis of the user’s judgment, effective algorithms are bound, in some form, to simulate human-kind linguistic practice. This is an unsolved challenge, complexity of which was recognized long before computer age1,2,3,4.

After the selection phase, 1693 studies were accepted for the information extraction phase. In this phase, information about each study was extracted mainly based on the abstracts, although some information was extracted from the full text. With sentiment analysis, companies can gauge user intent, evaluate their experience, and accordingly plan on how to address their problems and execute advertising or marketing campaigns. In short, sentiment analysis can streamline and boost successful business strategies for enterprises. Semantic analysis methods will provide companies the ability to understand the meaning of the text and achieve comprehension and communication levels that are at par with humans.

Table of Contents

Understanding Natural Language might seem a straightforward process to us as humans. However, due to the vast complexity and subjectivity involved in human language, interpreting it is quite a complicated task for machines. Semantic Analysis of Natural Language captures the meaning of the given text while taking into account context, logical structuring of sentences and grammar roles. Text mining is a process to automatically discover knowledge from unstructured data. Nevertheless, it is also an interactive process, and there are some points where a user, normally a domain expert, can contribute to the process by providing his/her previous knowledge and interests. As an example, in the pre-processing step, the user can provide additional information to define a stoplist and support feature selection.

semantic analysis of text

TF-IDF is an information retrieval technique that weighs a term’s frequency (TF) and its inverse document frequency (IDF). The product of the TF and IDF scores of a word is called the TFIDF weight of that word. LSA itself is an unsupervised way of uncovering synonyms in a collection of documents. The idea of entity extraction is to identify named entities in text, such as names of people, companies, places, etc. In Sentiment analysis, our aim is to detect the emotions as positive, negative, or neutral in a text to denote urgency.

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This mapping shows that there is a lack of studies considering languages other than English or Chinese. The low number of studies considering other languages suggests that there is a need for construction or expansion of language-specific resources (as discussed in “External knowledge sources” section). These resources can be used for enrichment of texts and for the development of language specific methods, based on natural language processing. Bos [31] presents an extensive survey of computational semantics, a research area focused on computationally understanding human language in written or spoken form. He discusses how to represent semantics in order to capture the meaning of human language, how to construct these representations from natural language expressions, and how to draw inferences from the semantic representations. The author also discusses the generation of background knowledge, which can support reasoning tasks.

Among other external sources, we can find knowledge sources related to Medicine, like the UMLS Metathesaurus [95–98], MeSH thesaurus [99–102], and the Gene Ontology [103–105]. The formal semantics defined by Sheth et al. [28] is commonly represented by description logics, a formalism for knowledge representation. The application of description logics in natural language processing is the theme of the brief review presented by Cheng et al. [29]. Methods that deal with latent semantics are reviewed in the study of Daud et al. [16].

In the ever-expanding era of textual information, it is important for organizations to draw insights from such data to fuel businesses. Semantic Analysis helps machines interpret the meaning of texts and extract useful information, thus providing invaluable data while reducing manual efforts. In the following subsections, we describe our systematic mapping protocol and how this study was conducted.

A ‘search autocomplete‘ functionality is one such type that predicts what a user intends to search based on previously searched queries. It saves a lot of time for the users as they can simply click on one of the search queries provided by the engine and get the desired result. Chatbots help customers immensely as they facilitate shipping, answer queries, and also offer personalized guidance and input on how to proceed further. Moreover, some chatbots are equipped with emotional intelligence that recognizes the tone of the language and hidden sentiments, framing emotionally-relevant responses to them. Semantic analysis plays a vital role in the automated handling of customer grievances, managing customer support tickets, and dealing with chats and direct messages via chatbots or call bots, among other tasks.

semantic analysis of text

The main parts of the protocol that guided the systematic mapping study reported in this paper are presented in the following. Several companies are using the sentiment analysis functionality to understand the voice of their customers, extract sentiments and emotions from text, and, in turn, derive actionable data from them. It helps capture the tone of customers when they post reviews and opinions on social media posts or company websites. Upon parsing, the analysis then proceeds to the interpretation step, which is critical for artificial intelligence algorithms.

The advantage of a systematic literature review is that the protocol clearly specifies its bias, since the review process is well-defined. However, it is possible to conduct it in a controlled and well-defined way through a systematic process. You can foun additiona information about ai customer service and artificial intelligence and NLP. A general text mining process can be seen as a five-step process, as illustrated in Fig.

Method applied for systematic mapping

The data representation must preserve the patterns hidden in the documents in a way that they can be discovered in the next step. In the pattern extraction step, the analyst applies a suitable algorithm to extract the hidden patterns. The algorithm is chosen based on the data available and the type of pattern that is expected. If this knowledge meets the process objectives, it can be put available to the users, starting the final step of the process, the knowledge usage. Otherwise, another cycle must be performed, making changes in the data preparation activities and/or in pattern extraction parameters. If any changes in the stated objectives or selected text collection must be made, the text mining process should be restarted at the problem identification step.

News Article Sentiment Analysis in Python by Anthony Morast – DataDrivenInvestor

News Article Sentiment Analysis in Python by Anthony Morast.

Posted: Wed, 08 Nov 2023 08:00:00 GMT [source]

In that way, hierarchical semantic structure of information representation, typical to human cognition9,150, can be accessed. In natural language, quantum-like properties of human decision making manifest most clearly. By design, words of natural language are multifunctional, so that frequently used words, e.g. pad, have wide distributions of potential meanings28; only accommodation in a particular textual environment narrows this distribution to some extent. Still, a reader or listener puts it to his or her personal context that can alter the intended meaning dramatically29,30. NeuraSense Inc, a leading content streaming platform in 2023, has integrated advanced semantic analysis algorithms to provide highly personalized content recommendations to its users. By analyzing user reviews, feedback, and comments, the platform understands individual user sentiments and preferences.

The authors discuss a series of questions concerning natural language issues that should be considered when applying the text mining process. Most of the questions are related to text pre-processing and the authors present the impacts of performing or not some pre-processing activities, such as stopwords removal, stemming, word sense disambiguation, and tagging. The authors also discuss some existing text representation approaches in terms of features, representation model, and application task.

With growing NLP and NLU solutions across industries, deriving insights from such unleveraged data will only add value to the enterprises. Tickets can be instantly routed to the right hands, and urgent issues can be easily prioritized, shortening response times, and keeping satisfaction levels high. Semantic analysis also takes into account signs and symbols (semiotics) and collocations (words that often go together).

In that case, it becomes an example of a homonym, as the meanings are unrelated to each other. Google’s Hummingbird algorithm, made in 2013, makes search results more relevant by looking at what people are looking for. This is often accomplished by locating and extracting the key ideas and connections found in the text utilizing algorithms and AI approaches. Semantic analysis, on the other hand, is crucial to achieving a high level of accuracy when analyzing text. According to a 2020 survey by Seagate technology, around 68% of the unstructured and text data that flows into the top 1,500 global companies (surveyed) goes unattended and unused.

Companies use this to understand customer feedback, online reviews, or social media mentions. For instance, if a new smartphone receives reviews like “The battery doesn’t last half a day! ”, sentiment analysis can categorize the former as negative feedback about the battery and the latter as positive feedback about the camera. MedIntel, a global health tech company, launched a patient feedback system in 2023 that uses a semantic analysis process to improve patient care. Rather than using traditional feedback forms with rating scales, patients narrate their experience in natural language. MedIntel’s system employs semantic analysis to extract critical aspects of patient feedback, such as concerns about medication side effects, appreciation for specific caregiving techniques, or issues with hospital facilities.

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The set of different approaches to measure the similarity between documents is also presented, categorizing the similarity measures by type (statistical or semantic) and by unit (words, phrases, vectors, or hierarchies). As we enter the era of ‘data explosion,’ it is vital for organizations to optimize this excess yet valuable data and derive valuable insights to drive their business goals. Semantic analysis allows organizations to interpret the meaning of the text and extract critical information from unstructured data. Semantic-enhanced machine learning tools are vital natural language processing components that boost decision-making and improve the overall customer experience. Earlier, tools such as Google translate were suitable for word-to-word translations. However, with the advancement of natural language processing and deep learning, translator tools can determine a user’s intent and the meaning of input words, sentences, and context.

The challenge has been solved through prototyping of the tool and engagement of the end users in the development cycle. In the future, we plan to improve the user interface for it to become more user-friendly. Analyzing the meaning of the client’s words is a golden lever, deploying operational improvements and bringing services to the clientele. We can observe that the features with a high χ2 can be considered relevant for the sentiment classes we are analyzing. And single qubit states \(\left| \psi _a\right\rangle\) and \(\left| \psi _b\right\rangle\) represent marginal cognitive models of text perceived through isolated conceptual distinctions A and B. The meaning representation can be used to reason for verifying what is correct in the world as well as to extract the knowledge with the help of semantic representation.

The papers considered in this systematic mapping study, as well as the mapping results, are limited by the applied search expression and the research questions. Therefore, the reader can miss in this systematic mapping report some previously known studies. It is not our objective to present a detailed survey of every specific topic, method, or text mining task. This systematic mapping is a starting point, and surveys with a narrower focus should be conducted for reviewing the literature of specific subjects, according to one’s interests.

When combined with machine learning, semantic analysis allows you to delve into your customer data by enabling machines to extract meaning from unstructured text at scale and in real time. Automatically classifying tickets using semantic analysis tools alleviates agents from repetitive tasks and allows them to focus on tasks that provide more value while improving the whole customer experience. The logic behind this algorithm is that sentences are treated as identically prepared instances of the text analyzed by subject, so that statistics of N recognition experiments is used to define amplitudes of state (4).

The overall results of the study were that semantics is paramount in processing natural languages and aid in machine learning. This study has covered various aspects including the Natural Language Processing (NLP), Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA), and Sentiment Analysis (SA) in different sections of this study. However, LSA has been covered in detail with specific inputs from various sources. This study also highlights the future prospects of semantic analysis domain and finally the study is concluded with the result section where areas of improvement are highlighted and the recommendations are made for the future research. This study also highlights the weakness and the limitations of the study in the discussion (Sect. 4) and results (Sect. 5). Thus, this paper reports a systematic mapping study to overview the development of semantics-concerned studies and fill a literature review gap in this broad research field through a well-defined review process.

In general, probabilistic regularities of human behavior do not fit in a single-context Kolmogorovian probability space19,20; their description requires multi-context probability measure supplemented by transition rules between different contexts. Such measure is provided by quantum theory where the required contextual probability calculus is based on the notion of quantum state21,22,23,24,25. This allows to account for contextual cognitive and behavioral phenomena by simple and quantitative models reviewed in15,26,27.

This two-distinction perception case is realized in the algorithm for detection and measurement of semantic connectivity between pairs of words. The developed approach to cognitive modeling unifies neurophysiological, linguistic, and psychological descriptions in a mathematical and conceptual structure of quantum theory, extending horizons of machine intelligence. The second most frequent identified application domain is the mining of web texts, comprising web pages, blogs, reviews, web forums, social medias, and email filtering [41–46]. The high interest in getting some knowledge from web texts can be justified by the large amount and diversity of text available and by the difficulty found in manual analysis. Nowadays, any person can create content in the web, either to share his/her opinion about some product or service or to report something that is taking place in his/her neighborhood.

  • Its prowess in both lexical semantics and syntactic analysis enables the extraction of invaluable insights from diverse sources.
  • We also found an expressive use of WordNet as an external knowledge source, followed by Wikipedia, HowNet, Web pages, SentiWordNet, and other knowledge sources related to Medicine.
  • Cognitive states formed in the process of perception of text are fully compatible with quantum theoretic analysis methods.
  • Semantic analysis enables these systems to comprehend user queries, leading to more accurate responses and better conversational experiences.
  • These two techniques can be used in the context of customer service to refine the comprehension of natural language and sentiment.

Lexical analysis is based on smaller tokens but on the contrary, the semantic analysis focuses on larger chunks. This provides a foundational overview of how semantic analysis works, its benefits, and its core components. Further depth can be added to each section based on the target audience and the article’s length. Semantic analysis aids in analyzing and understanding customer queries, helping to provide more accurate and efficient support. Semantic analysis allows for a deeper understanding of user preferences, enabling personalized recommendations in e-commerce, content curation, and more. It helps understand the true meaning of words, phrases, and sentences, leading to a more accurate interpretation of text.

In this subsection, we present a consolidation of our results and point some future trends of semantics-concerned text mining. Dagan et al. [26] introduce a special issue of the Journal of Natural Language Engineering on textual entailment recognition, which is a natural language task that aims to identify if a piece of semantic analysis of text text can be inferred from another. The authors present an overview of relevant aspects in textual entailment, discussing four PASCAL Recognising Textual Entailment (RTE) Challenges. They declared that the systems submitted to those challenges use cross-pair similarity measures, machine learning, and logical inference.

Another technique in this direction that is commonly used for topic modeling is latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) [121]. The topic model obtained by LDA has been used for representing text collections as in [58, 122, 123]. This paper reports a systematic mapping study conducted to get a general overview of how text semantics is being treated in text mining studies. It fills a literature review gap in this broad research field through a well-defined review process. As a systematic mapping, our study follows the principles of a systematic mapping/review. However, as our goal was to develop a general mapping of a broad field, our study differs from the procedure suggested by Kitchenham and Charters [3] in two ways.

Semantic analysis ensures that translated content retains the nuances, cultural references, and overall meaning of the original text. Beyond just understanding words, it deciphers complex customer inquiries, unraveling the intent behind user searches and guiding customer service teams towards more effective responses. Moreover, QuestionPro might connect with other specialized semantic analysis tools or NLP platforms, depending on its integrations or APIs. This integration could enhance the analysis by leveraging more advanced semantic processing capabilities from external tools. This degree of language understanding can help companies automate even the most complex language-intensive processes and, in doing so, transform the way they do business. So the question is, why settle for an educated guess when you can rely on actual knowledge?

Assessing the semantic similarity of texts is an important part of different text-related applications like educational systems, information retrieval, text summarization, etc. This task is performed by sophisticated analysis, which implements text-mining techniques. Text mining involves several pre-processing steps, which provide for obtaining structured representative model of the documents in a corpus by means of extracting and selecting the features, characterizing their content. Generally the model is vector-based and enables further analysis with knowledge discovery approaches.

We do not present the reference of every accepted paper in order to present a clear reporting of the results. All in all, semantic analysis enables chatbots to focus on user needs and address their queries in lesser time and lower cost. It was quite a challenge to bring the emerging technologies and their implications into the daily practice of the people who usually don’t work with them. Through some workshops showing them different possibilities of this tool, we inspired users to try to approach their work in a new, more efficient way. Another challenge we encountered in the project was in designing an intuitive and response interface for the users.

Resulting electrochemical excitations are transferred to the organism’s behavioral facilities by descending neural pathways. For Example, Tagging Twitter mentions by sentiment to get a sense of how customers feel about your product and can identify unhappy customers in real-time. In other words, we can say that polysemy has the same spelling but different and related meanings. Semantic analysis enables these systems to comprehend user queries, leading to more accurate responses and better conversational experiences.

semantic analysis of text

WordNet can be used to create or expand the current set of features for subsequent text classification or clustering. The use of features based on WordNet has been applied with and without good results [55, 67–69]. Besides, WordNet can support the computation of semantic similarity [70, 71] and the evaluation of the discovered knowledge [72].

In empirical research, researchers use to execute several experiments in order to evaluate proposed methods and algorithms, which would require the involvement of several users, therefore making the evaluation not feasible in practical ways. The use of Wikipedia is followed by the use of the Chinese-English knowledge database HowNet [82]. Finding HowNet as one of the most used external knowledge source it is not surprising, since Chinese is one of the most cited languages in the studies selected in this mapping (see the “Languages” section). As well as WordNet, HowNet is usually used for feature expansion [83–85] and computing semantic similarity [86–88]. Jovanovic et al. [22] discuss the task of semantic tagging in their paper directed at IT practitioners. Semantic tagging can be seen as an expansion of named entity recognition task, in which the entities are identified, disambiguated, and linked to a real-world entity, normally using a ontology or knowledge base.

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